Top Level page for core architecture

The primary design is based around the CDC 6600 (not a historical exact replica of its design), specifically its Dependency Matrices which provide superscalar out-of-order execution and full register renaming with very little in the way of gates or power consumption. Modifying the 6600 concept to be multi-issue, thanks to help from Mitch Alsup, is near-trivial and an O(N) linear complexity. Additionally, Mitch helped us to add "Precise exceptions", which is the same pathway used for branch speculation and predication.

The use of Dependency Matrices allows a mixture of variable-length completion time ALUs, including dynamic pipelines and blocking FSMs, to be mixed together and the Dependency Matrices, maintaining a Directed Acyclic Graph of all Read-Write hazards, simply take care of it.

The selection of the 6600 as the core engine has far-reaching implications. Note: the standard academic literature on the 6600 - all of it - completely and systematically fails to comprehend or explain why it is so elegant. In fact, several modern microarchitectures have reinvented aspects of the 6600, not realising that the 6600 was the first ever microarchitecture to provide full register renaming combined with out-of-order execution in such a superbly gate-efficient fashion.

Anyone wishing to understand that there is a direct one-for-one equivalence between properly and fully implemented Scoreboards (not: "implementing the Q-Table patent and then thinking that's all there is to it") and the Tomasulo algorithm, there is a page available describing how to convert from Tomasulo to Scoreboards: tomasulo transformation. The dis-service that the standard academic literature has done to Scoreboards by focussing exclusively on the Q-Tables is equivalent to implementing a Tomasulo Reorder Buffer (only) then claiming (accurately) that this one component is not an Out-of-Order system.

Basic principle

The basic principle: the front-end ISA is variable-length Vectorised, with a hardware-level for-loop in front of a predicated SIMD backend suite of ALUs. Instructions issued at the front-end are first SIMD-grouped, then the remaining "elements" (or groups of SIMD'd elements) are thrown at the multi-issue OoO execution engine and the augmented-6600 Matrices left to their own devices.

Predication, branch speculation, register file bypass and exceptions all use the same mechanism: shadowing (thanks to Mitch for explaining how this is done). Shadowing holds a latch that prevents and prohibits the write commit phase of the OoO Matrices but not the execution phase, simply by hooking into GOWRITE. Once the result is definitely known to be able to proceed the shadow latch is dropped.

If there was an exception (or a predicate bit is retrospectively found to be zero, or a branch found to go the other way) the "GODIE" is called instead, and because all downstream dependent instructions are also held by the same shadow line, no register writes nor memory writes were allowed to occur and consequently the instructions can be cancelled with impunity.

Dynamic SIMD partitioning

There are no separate scalar ALUs and separate SIMD ALUs. The ALUs are dynamically partitioned. This adds 50% silicon when compared to a scalar ALU however it saves 200% or greater silicon due to ALU duplication removal.

The only reason this design can even remotely be considered is down to the use of standard python Software Engineering Object-Orientated techniques, on top of nmigen, which industry-standard HDLs such as VHDL and Verilog completely lack.

See dynamic simd for details.

Dynamic Pipeline length adjustment

There are pipeline register bypasses on every other pipeline stage in the ALU, simply implemented as a combinatorial mux. This allows pairs of pipeline stages to either become a single higher-latency combinatorial block or a straight standard chain of clock-synced pipeline stages just like all other pipeline stages.


This means that in low clock rate modes the length of the whole pipeline may be reduced in latency (the number of effective stages is halved). Whilst in higher clock rate modes where the long stage latency would otherwise be a serious limiting factor, the intermediary latches are enabled, thus doubling the pipeline length into much shorter stages with lower latency, and the problem is solved.

The only reason why this ingenious and elegant trick (deployed first by IBM in the 1990s) can be considered is down to the fact that the 6600 Style Dependency Matrices do not care about actual completion time, they only care about availability of the result.


6600 Engine

See 6600scoreboard


TODO, see decoder

Memory and Cache arrangement

Section TODO, with own page memory and cache LD/ST accesses are controlled by the 6600-style Dependency Matrices

Bus arrangement

Wishbone was chosen. to expand why (related to patents).

Register Files.

See regfile

Computation Unit

See compunit


Section TODO, an IOMMU is an integral part of protecting processes from directly accessing peripherals (and other memory areas) that they shouldn't.