# Simple-V Vectorisation for the OpenPOWER ISA

**SV is in DRAFT STATUS**. SV has not yet been submitted to the OpenPOWER Foundation ISA WG for review.

https://bugs.libre-soc.org/show_bug.cgi?id=213

Fundamental design principles:

- Simplicity of introduction and implementation on the existing OpenPOWER ISA
- Effectively a hardware for-loop, pausing PC, issuing multiple scalar operations
- Preserving the underlying scalar execution dependencies as if the for-loop had been expanded as actual scalar instructions (termed "preserving Program Order")
- Augments ("tags") existing instructions, providing Vectorisation "context" rather than adding new ones.
- Does not modify or deviate from the underlying scalar OpenPOWER ISA unless it provides significant performance or other advantage to do so in the Vector space (dropping XER.SO and OE=1 for example)
- Designed for Supercomputing: avoids creating significant sequential dependency hazards, allowing high performance superscalar microarchitectures to be deployed.

Advantages of these design principles:

- It is therefore easy to create a first (and sometimes only) implementation as literally a for-loop in hardware, simulators, and compilers.
- More complex HDL can be done by repeating existing scalar ALUs and pipelines as blocks.
- As (mostly) a high-level "context" that does not (significantly) deviate from scalar OpenPOWER ISA and, in its purest form being "a for loop around scalar instructions", it is minimally-disruptive and consequently stands a reasonable chance of broad community adoption and acceptance
- Completely wipes not just SIMD opcode proliferation off the
map (SIMD is O(N
^{6}) opcode proliferation) but off of Vectorisation ISAs as well. No more separate Vector instructions.

Pages being developed and examples

- overview explaining the basics.
- implementation implementation planning and coordination
- svp64 contains the packet-format
*only* - setvl the Cray-style "Vector Length" instruction
- predication discussion on predication concepts
- cr int predication instructions needed for effective predication
- masked vector chaining
- discussion
- example dep matrices
- major opcode allocation
- opcode regs deduped
- vector swizzle
- register type tags
- mv.swizzle
- mv.x
- branches - SVP64 Conditional Branch behaviour: All/Some Vector CRs
- cr ops - SVP64 Condition Register ops: Guidelines on Vectorisation of any v3.0B base operations which return or modify a Condition Register bit or field.
- fcvt FP Conversion (due to OpenPOWER Scalar FP32)
- fclass detect class of FP numbers
- int fp mv Move and convert GPR <-> FPR, needed for !VSX
- mv.vec move to and from vec2/3/4
- 16 bit compressed experimental
- toc data pointer experimental
- ldst Load and Store
- sprs SPRs
- bitmanip
- remap "Remapping" for Matrix Multiply and RGB "Structure Packing"
- propagation Context propagation including svp64, swizzle and remap
- vector ops Vector ops needed to make a "complete" Vector ISA
- av opcodes scalar opcodes for Audio/Video
- byteswap
- TODO: OpenPOWER transcendentals

Additional links:

- https://www.sigarch.org/simd-instructions-considered-harmful/
- simple v extension old (deprecated) version
- llvm

# Required Background Reading:

These are all, deep breath, basically... required reading, *as well as and in addition* to a full and comprehensive deep technical understanding of the Power ISA, in order to understand the depth and background on SVP64 as a 3D GPU and VPU Extension.

I am keenly aware that each of them is 300 to 1,000 pages (just like the Power ISA itself).

This is just how it is.

Given the sheer overwhelming size and scope of SVP64 we have gone to CONSIDERABLE LENGTHS to provide justification and rationalisation for adding the various sub-extensions to the Base Scalar Power ISA.

Scalar bitmanipulation is justifiable for the exact same reasons the extensions are justifiable for other ISAs. The additional justification for their inclusion where some instructions are already (sort-of) present in VSX is that VSX is not mandatory, and the complexity of implementation of VSX is too high a price to pay at the Embedded SFFS Compliancy Level.

Scalar FP-to-INT conversions, likewise. ARM has a javascript conversion instruction, Power ISA does not (and it costs a ridiculous 45 instructions to implement, including 6 branches!)

Scalar Transcendentals (SIN, COS, ATAN2, LOG) are easily justifiable for High-Performance Compute workloads.

It also has to be pointed out that normally this work would be covered by multiple separate full-time Workgroups with multiple Members contributing their time and resources!

Overall the contributions that we are developing take the Power ISA out of the specialist highly-focussed market it is presently best known for, and expands it into areas with much wider general adoption and broader uses.

OpenCL specifications are linked here, these are relevant when we get to a 3D GPU / High Performance Compute ISA WG RFC: transcendentals

(Failure to add Transcendentals to a 3D GPU is directly equivalent to *willfully* designing a product that is 100% destined for commercial failure.)

I mention these because they will be encountered in every single commercial GPU ISA, but they're not part of the "Base" (core design) of a Vector Processor. Transcendentals can be added as a sub-RFC.

## Actual 3D GPU Architectures and ISAs:

Broadcom Videocore https://github.com/hermanhermitage/videocoreiv

Nyuzi http://www.cs.binghamton.edu/~millerti/nyuziraster.pdf

AMD https://developer.amd.com/wp-content/resources/RDNA_Shader_ISA.pdf

https://developer.amd.com/wp-content/resources/Vega_Shader_ISA_28July2017.pdfMIAOW which is

*NOT*a 3D GPU, it is a processor which happens to implement a subset of the AMDGPU ISA (Southern Islands), aka a "GPGPU" https://miaowgpu.org/

## Actual Vector Processor Architectures and ISAs:

NEC SX Aurora https://www.hpc.nec/documents/guide/pdfs/Aurora_ISA_guide.pdf

RISC-V RVV https://github.com/riscv/riscv-v-spec

MRISC32 ISA Manual (under active development) https://github.com/mrisc32/mrisc32/tree/master/isa-manual

Mitch Alsup's MyISA 66000 Vector Processor ISA Manual is available from Mitch on direct contact with him. It is a different approach from the others, which may be termed "Cray-Style Horizontal-First" Vectorisation. 66000 is a

*Vertical-First*Vector ISA.

The term Horizontal or Vertical alludes to the Matrix "Row-First" or "Column-First" technique, where:

- Horizontal-First processes all elements in a Vector before moving on to the next instruction
- Vertical-First processes
*ONE*element per instruction, and requires loop constructs to explicitly step to the next element.

Vector-type Support by Architecture

Architecture | Horizontal | Vertical |
---|---|---|

MyISA | X | |

Cray | X | |

SX Aurora | X | |

RVV | X | |

SVP64 | X | X |

Obligatory Dilbert: